Which French zoologist, predating Charles Darwin, proposed evolution sans divine intervention?

Despite the differences between western and Islamic academia, empirical science does have certain characteristics upon which many scientists from different ideologies agree. Examples of theses characteristics are:


A natural cause must be used to explain why or how  natural occurrences result or experimental subjects happen. Supernatural causes cannot be used in empirical science. 

For example, we cannot say: “Earthquakes happen due to God’s anger towards people”, using this as a scientific cause. In reality, it can be a real and authentic cause if, for example, God revealed in authentic scripture that a particular earthquake was a result or punishment for the wrongdoers of a said location. However, as long as there is science that can be understood through the natural phenomena, they eliminate the cause established by revelation and narrow the sphere of their conclusions. 


The scope of science is for physical and material subjects only. Therefore, what is the soul? What is consciousness? What is meaning? These questions are not related to the scope of science and thus cannot be determined scientifically. 

Science can investigate ‘function’, but not ‘purpose’. Rather, function is created to fulfill a designated purpose. 


Scientific subjects are tested by using controlled experiments. To prove that an idea or hypothesis is testable, it must logically generate specific expectations. Thus, all pieces of information that cannot be tested in sound mentality are not considered to be genuine science. 


Closely related to the previous characteristic, predictions can be made about scientific subjects, and they can be tested. 

Evidence Consistency: 

Scientific ideas must not only be testable, but must be tested by several scientists, and the results should be the same.


1. Tzortzis H. No Doubt Course. Islamic Online University (2016).